What is Insulin Sensitivity :~> Insulin Resistance Types 1 & 2
Hormone discovered in 1921 by Banting and best, who demonstrated the hypoglycemic action of extract of pancreas prepared after degeneration of exocrine part due to ligation of pancreatic duct.
It synthesized by β cells pancreatic islets as single chain peptide. It’s secreted per hour by human pancreas. Much larger quantity secreted after every meal, regulated by chemical, hormonal and neural mechanism.
It’s a hormone made by pancreas and allow to use glucose (sugar) from carbohydrates in food. Pancreatic hormone also help keep blood glucose level from hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia.
Read what is Hyperglycemia – Too high blood sugar level
What is Hypoglycemia – Too low blood sugar level
What is Insulin ?
Our body cell need sugar (glucose) for energy. After you take food and digestion starts after that blood sugar level rise. Then pancreas special cell known as beta cell signaled to release hormone in our blood stream. After that hormone attached to special cell to absorb sugar from blood. It works on lock and key process. It known as key which unlocks body cells to allow glucose to enter in cell for energy purpose.
Action of Insulinhormone – It’s facilitates glucose transport across cell membrane. Skeletal muscle and fat are highly sensitive. However Glucose entry in liver, RBC, WBC, renal medullary cells is largely independent of hormone.
During first step – Intracellular utilization of glucose is it’s phosphorylation to form glucose-6-phosphate. Also inhibit lipolysis in adipose tissue & favour triglyceride synthesis.
It’s also acts on specific receptors located on cell membrane, it’s depend on the cell type.
Reaction of Insulins Hypoglycemia – Most frequent & potentially most serious reaction. It commonly seen in patient of liable diabetes. In whom hormone requirement fluctuates unpredictably.
What is Insulin Sensitivity?
How sensitive the body to the insulin effects. high sensitivity will require tiny amount of hormone to lower blood glucose level. It varies person to person.
Why insulin sensitivity is important? Low sensitivity can lead lots of health problem. Our body try to compensate for having sensitivity (low) to hormone by producing high amount of hormone.
Hyperinsulinemia (high level of circulating insulin) associated with damage of blood vessels, heart disease, high blood pressure, heart failure, osteoporosis, obesity and even cancer.
What is Insulin Resistance People who have low sensitivity referred as Insulin resistance and require bigger amount of dose either from their pancreas or from injections to keep sugar level stable in blood.
Can High Insulin Sensitivity is a problem? Good sensitivity to hormone a sign of good health. But for type 1 diabetes person high sensitivity can increase risk of hypoglycemia.
Insulin resistance a sign that our body having difficulty metabolising glucose also indicate serious health problem. Health problem as Cholesterol level, High blood pressure.
Low insulin sensitivity mainly associated with diabetes Type 2, People with type 1 diabetes & insulin resistance said double diabetes.
Types of Insulin
Various insulin types used to treat diabetes
- Rapid Acting
- Short Acting
- Intermediate Acting
- Long Acting
Rapid Acting Insulins = Dose starts working within 15 minutes just after injection and peaks at about 1 hour. But dose continue to work for 2-4 hours. It usually taken before a meal and with addition to a long-acting.
Short Acting Insulins = It starts working within thirty minutes after injection but at peaks within 2-3 hours and continue to work for 3-6 hours.
Intermediate Acting Insulins = Dose starts working approx 2-4 hours after injection and reach at peak approx 4-12 hours and continue work for 12-18 hours. It may taken twice a day and in addition to rapid or short acting.
Long Acting Insulins = It works after several hours after injection and works for 24 hours.
It can be given by syringe, Insulin Injection Pen, Insulin Pump that delivers a continuous flow.
Read more about Diabetes & Pancreatic Hormones – Click Here To Open