Nipah Virus Symptoms & Prevention Henipavirus in India 2019
What is Nipah Virus? What does a Nipah Virus Do? Nipah Virus Transmission, What are the symptoms of Nipah Virus ?
Nipah Virus a zoonotic virus and transmitted from Animal to Humans. It may also transmitted through contaminated food and directly between people. Nipahvirus caused only a few known outbreaks in Asia. It cause a wide range of animals. Also cause serious infection and disease, death in people. Like in Kerala nipah virus infection case identified, making it a public health concern.
Range of Infection & illness from subclinical (asymptomatic) infection to Fatal encephalitis and acute respiratory illness.
Nipah virus a member of Paramyxoviridae family and Henipavirus Genus. NiV identified in 1999 during kinds of illness in Pig farmers (people with close contract with pig in Singapore and Malaysia. The disease also identified periodically in eastern India. In 2019 Kerala government confirms NiV and 311 people under observation.
Nipah Virus in Kerala state – Kollam, Kochi, Palakkad, Idukki, Ernakulam, Trivandrum, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta, Kottayam, Thrissur, Malappuram, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Kannur, Kasaragod.
Nipah Virus Symptoms
Encephalitis (Inflammation of Brain)
Few things to know about Nipah Virus sign & symptoms Other symptoms – Fever, Altered mental status, headache, severe weakness, cough, vomiting, muscle pain, convulsion, Respiratory distress, diarrhea.
Signs – It associated with encephalitis, incubation period 5-14 days, illness present with 3-4 days of fever & headache, mental confusion, disorientation or progress to coma within 24-48 hours.
How Nipah Virus Spread in Humans – Infection period 6 to 21 days. It transmission from infected bats and pigs to people. It’s an communicable disease and may also spread by infected people through physical contact, body fluids.
Human to human of NIV virus also been reported, family & caregivers.
Virus aso reported within health care setting, among 75% of cases occurred among hospital staff or visitors.
Nipah Virus Prevention
What is Nipah Virus Treatment
Currently no such treatment or vaccine for both human & animals. A subunit vaccine – using Hendra G protein produce cross protective antibodies against HENV and NIPV. It offer great potential for henipavirus protection in human.
Drug Ribavirin – shown to be effective against viruses in vitro
- Surveillance and awareness will prevent future outbreaks.
- Animal premises should be quarantined immediately.
- Culling of infected animals, close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses.
- In case of absence of vaccine, only way to reduce infection in people by raising awareness of risk factors and educating people about measures. Reducing risk of bat-to-human transmission, Also reducing risk animal-to-human-transmission, Reducing risk of human-to-human transmission.
General Instructions – Washing hands with soap and water, consuming washed fruits and avoid half eaten fruits, maintain hygiene,
Nipah Virus in India
Nipah Virus outbreak in Kerala – Recently disease resurfaced in Kerala state, a 23 year old student here confirmed to be infected. Govt said 311 people from virus location with whom student interacted were under clinical observation. Also government said – 3 who attend student initially and one person who studied with him – suffering from fever and sore throat.
NiV Spread through person to person and Drinking of raw date palm sap contaminated with NIV.
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